11. Investment property


(in thousands of euros)

Buildings

Land

Assets under construction

Total

Carrying amount as at 1 January 2017

982,546

387,664

83,272

1,453,482

Movements in 2017

Capital expenditure

-

-

16,192

16,192

Capitalised construction borrowing cost

-

-

86

86

Completions

5,713

332

-6,045

-

Fair value gains and losses

21,247

15,250

5,980

42,477

Reclassification

-385

-2,360

-5,813

-8,558

Other

-

-

65

65

Total movements in the year

26,575

13,222

10,465

50,262

Carrying amount as at 31 December 2017

1,009,121

400,886

93,737

1,503,744

Movements in 2018

Capital expenditure

-

-

33,777

33,777

Capitalised construction borrowing cost

-

-

457

457

Completions

14,862

5,331

-20,193

-

Fair value gains and losses

64,389

37,529

3,666

105,584

Impairments

-

-

-1,000

-1,000

Impairment reversal

-

-

3,300

3,300

Reclassification

9,241

-7,642

-5,202

-3,604

Other

-

-

27

27

Total movements in the year

88,492

35,218

14,832

138,541

Carrying amount as at 31 December 2018

1,097,612

436,104

108,569

1,642,285

Measured at

Cost model

-

-

46,433

46,433

Fair value model

1,097,612

436,104

62,136

1,595,852

Investment property under construction

Assets under construction for the development of investment properties are measured at fair value if the value can be measured reliably. The investment property under construction includes land positions held for future investment property development or land with undetermined future use (operational or commercial development). Since the development plans are subject to annual changes, they are inadequate to determine the fair value on a continuing basis. For this reason, the land positions are measured in accordance with the cost model.

Buildings and land

All building and land properties are measured at fair value. The fair value is based on the market value being the estimated amount for which investment property can be sold on the valuation date between a buyer and a seller willing to do business in an objective, arm's length transaction. The calculation of the cash flows, which is a factor in determining the fair value at which investment property is stated in the balance sheet, takes into account the lease incentives granted. After all, the lease incentives are recognised separately as assets on the balance sheet under other non-current receivables (12.9 million euros as at 31 December 2018) and trade and other receivables (3.6 million euros as at 31 December 2018).

As at 31 December 2018, 100% of the buildings and 15.9% of the land is appraised by independent external appraisers. The remaining fair value of land is based on internal valuations with reference to externally validated input variables.

Buildings include an amount of 159 million euros (31 December 2017: 145 million euros) in respect of the fair value of assets (The Base) where the company has the risks and rewards incidental to ownership but no legal title (finance lease). Land includes land leased under long-lease contracts.

Details of the result on property sales and fair value gains and losses on investment property can be found in note 2. Other results from investment property.

All investment property classifies as a level 3 valuation. In October 2015 the Dutch Register of Real Estate Valuers (Nederlands Register Vastgoed Taxateurs (NRVT)) was established, tasked with safeguarding and enhancing the quality of appraisers. The general behaviour and professional rules and regulations of the NRVT are the new market standard with which appraisers have to comply. These standards are based on IFRS and international valuation guidelines. All our external appraisers are NRVT members.

The valuation method is described in more detail below.

Valuation method for buildings

The valuation method used is a combination of the net initial yield (NIY) method and the discounted cash flow method (DCF). The NIY method uses a net market rent which is capitalised with a NIY and is adjusted for all elements that differ from the market assumptions. The NIY is determined on the basis of comparable market transactions supplemented with market and object-specific knowledge. Deviating assumptions include contractual rent, vacancy information, deferred maintenance and rent holidays. The DCF method estimated net cash flows are discounted at a risk-adjusted discount rate which includes specific object and location assumptions.

Average effective contractual rental income per m2

Average market rent per m2

Average net initial yield

2018

2017

2018

2017

2018

2017

Schiphol-Centre

Offices

303

284

288

286

4.70%

5.35%

Business premises

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Schiphol-North and East

Offices

159

135

157

159

7.62%

7.75%

Business premises

n/a

115

n/a

101

n/a

6.80%

Schiphol-Southeast

Offices

139

84

143

167

9.38%

10.00%

Business premises

127

125

105

110

5.16%

6.58%

Schiphol-South

Offices

167

158

126

156

n/a

6.75%

Business premises

97

92

76

84

6.94%

6.49%

Rotterdam The Hague Airport

Offices

144

196

160

178

6.47%

7.05%

Business premises

91

90

75

94

6.16%

7.04%

Significant assumptions for buildings

The significant assumptions used in the valuation model comprise:

Buildings

2018

2017

Inflation rate

1.85% - 2.01%

1.30% - 2.00%

Average market rent development

0.00% - 1.80%

0.00% - 1.85%

Net initial yield

4.30% - 9.38%

4.30% - 10.10%

Relationship between significant unobservable input and fair value determination

The estimated fair value will increase (decrease) to the extent that the expected market rent growth is higher (lower), the periods of vacancy are shorter (longer), the occupancy rate is higher (lower), the rent holidays are shorter (longer) and the NIY is lower (higher) than assumed.

Valuation method for land

For land positions that generate revenues through ground rent, the valuation technique used is the DCF method. The estimated net cash flows are discounted with a risk-adjusted rate plus risk surcharges.

Land positions that are leased out for long periods and whose instalments are prepaid are measured at the prepaid installment minus an annual redemption. The annual redemption is equal to the total installment divided by the lease period plus the discounted value of the estimated installment for the next lease period.

Significant assumptions used in the valuation model for land

The main assumptions used in the valuation of land are specified below:

Land

2018

2017

Inflation rate

1.60% - 2.00%

1.30% - 2.00%

Discount rate

4.75% - 7.75%

6.35% - 7.85%

Next:

12. Income taxes