4. Outsourcing and other external costs


(in thousands of euros)

2018

2017

Security

204,805

192,517

Subcontracted activities

136,753

125,029

Maintenance

115,584

107,189

Hired temporary staff

77,899

63,894

Cleaning

38,335

36,541

Advisory and audit fees

26,322

21,192

Insurance and government levies

21,137

21,790

Energy and water

19,945

18,030

Costs related to investments

19,490

15,267

Commercial expenses

15,100

14,544

Hotel activities

2,563

20,242

Other expenses (such as general expenses, rents and leasing)

72,850

65,001

Total cost of outsourced work and other external costs

750,783

701,236

The subcontracted activities category comprises a broad range of outsourced activities related to the airport processes, such as the outsourcing of bus transporting services, the people with reduced mobility process and the lost & found process.

Auditor’s fees

(in thousands of euros)

2018

2017

Audit of the financial statements

892

913

Other audit services

675

489

Total auditor's fees

1,567

1,402

The auditor’s fees concern activities carried out at Schiphol Group and the consolidated group companies by the audit firm as referred to in Section 1(1) of the Audit Firms Supervision Act and represent the fees charged by the entire network of which the audit firm is part. The audit of the financial statements includes the consolidated financial statements and the audit of the entities that are part of the consolidation. The other audit services rendered by the auditor include the assurance report on Socio-economic Accountability, a review of interim financial information, an audit of financial statements for regulatory purposes, several agreed upon procedures for regulatory purposes and procedures for the EMTN prospectuses. The fees of KPMG Accountants N.V. amount to 1.5 million euros (2017: 1.2 million euros) while the activities performed by other members of the KPMG network amount to 0.1 million euros (2017: 0.2 million euros).

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5. Employee benefits expense